“Antibody production” possesses both specific and generic meanings. In the broader spectrum, it means the whole process of creating usable specific antibodies. That includes immunization steps, immunogen preparation, hybridoma development, collection, isotyping, screening, and labeling for direct usage in a particular method. Looking at it from an angle that is entirely restricted, we could refer to antibody production as the steps leading up to the generation of antibodies but not inclusive of the various forms of labeling and purification of antibodies for specific uses. The production of antibodies involves preparing antigen samples and their safe injection into farm or laboratory animals to evoke levels of expression of antigen-specific antibodies in the serum.
The services of custom antibody production include competitive purification options and priced packages for the production of antibodies. Antibody production service providers provide complete support for all the steps and types of antibody production. The steps include:
- Peptide design
- Carrier protein conjugation to serum collection, animal immunization, titer analysis, hybridoma fusion, and
- Final antibody purification
The services could also include immunization with recombinant protein fragments or proteins expressed and purified in the lab to generate antibodies in chickens, rabbits, rats, goats, and guinea pigs.
It involves isolating antibodies from serum, culture supernatant, or ascites of a hybridoma cell line. Methods of purification include; crude, general, and specific.
Characterization of antibodies involves the following kinds of activities;
- Screening- identification of the samples of antibodies with antigen-binding specificity.
- Titering- the measurement of functional assay titer and antibody concentration
- Isotyping – The determination of a monoclonal subclass identity and antibody class
With this, purified antibodies are modified for specific uses from several methods that include fragmentation into smaller antigen-binding units, conjugation with detectable markers, enzymes, and immobilization to solid supports. It refers to the procedures undertaken for cleaving apart the entire antibody molecules and removing unnecessary portions for the binding of antigens.
Custom Antibody Categories
Some of the custom antibody categories that are featured include the following;
Custom Polyclonal Antibody Production
Competent service providers possess the capabilities to enable full support of polyclonal antibody production. The industry offers eight protocol packages for immunization schedules for such species like rabbits, and goats, among others. That is for the production of custom polyclonal antibodies to protein antigens and peptides.
Custom Monospecific Antibody Production
This involves the custom antibody services for the purification and production of post-translational-modification and phospho-specific antibodies.
Monoclonal Antibody Screening and Testing
It involves additional screening, ELISA, and method validation procedures for custom antibodies.
It involves the development options of rat and mouse hybridoma to produce custom monoclonal antibodies from recombinant protein antigens or synthesized peptides.
Custom Antibody Purification
This category is a three-step procedure of purification and the specialized options to obtain monospecific antibodies.
Antigen Profiler and Antigen Preparation
Did you know that innovations in antibody production have advanced to the realization of such tools as the thermos scientific antigen profiler? It is a bioinformatics custom peptide design algorithm and protein sequence analysis tool. It is a platform encompassing and incorporating a unique set of powerful bioinformatics algorithms to design and analyze protein antigens and peptides to ensure a high-titer production of some specific antibodies. This analysis serves as a service for researchers wishing to synthesize and create effective peptide antigens to develop custom antibodies.
Specific services of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies production
Peptide synthesis, design, and conjugation
Antibody production service providers will assist you in optimizing and designing antigenic peptides using the latest technologies. They will then synthesize the peptide and conjugate it to the carrier protein you choose.
Fusion Protein Purification and Expression
Antibody production services also offer mammalian, bacterial, and insect protein expression services as a part of the platform for developing antibodies. The service providers will develop your protein and purify it to prepare for ELISA testing and immunization.
Monoclonal or Polyclonal Antibody Protocols
You’ll be required to choose one out of six species options in eight immunization schedules to produce polyclonal antibodies. You could also choose one out of the three package sizes from the strains and number of mice to produce monoclonal antibodies.
The Development of Biomarker Antibodies
You can choose from many standardized packages to produce monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to the specific biomarkers of your interest.
Titering and Screening Analysis
Most antibody service providers characterize and screen the hybridoma supernatants or antisera produced. They will also do close to the kind of assay validation and development experiments requested.
Purification Deliverables and Specificities
All antibodies are purified with a three-step procedure that is effective. Additionally, the antibody service providers offer various specialized purification options to get monospecific antibodies as acetylated, phosphorylated, or other modification states.
Polyclonal antibody production is still and will remain an important activity of research. Additionally, rabbits will still serve as the primary species to produce polyclonal antibodies. The methodologies and schedules for immunizing rabbits and producing polyclonal antibodies depend on immunogens, the adjuvant, and the antibody’s end purpose.